In the present study, the effects of 10, 20, 30 ppm hormone mixtures (indole-3-acetic acid + gibberellic acid + kinetin) with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ppm zinc (Zn) concentrations alone and their mixtures on the cambial activity of sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Miller) cuttings were investigated. Morphological and anatomical developments of the plants were observed. The leaves of the plants treated with zinc were found to be greener than the control. Plants treated with zinc faded earlier than the control. The cambial zone thickness, the cambial zone cell line, the radial and tangential lengths of the cambial zone cells decreased with increasing concentrations of zinc and increased with increasing concentrations of hormones. The radial and tangential wall widths of the cambial zone cells increased with increasing zinc concentrations and decreased with increasing hormone concentrations. As a result, in the 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ppm Zn concentrations, the cambial zone thickness decreased by 10, 28, 50 and 65%, respectively, compared to the control. Thirty ppm hormone mixture – H.M. (indole-3-acetic acid + gibberellic acid + kinetin) increased the cambial zone thickness by 65, 15, 5% in 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 Zn, respectively, compared to the control. It was found that plant hormones importantly improved the harmful effects of zinc on the cambial activity of the plant cuttings.
There are few reports in literature about the selectivity of postemergence application of herbicides for the control of eudicotyledon weeds (broadleaf) in chickpea. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the selectivity of diphenyl-ether herbicides in chickpea influenced by the herbicides and application rates. A field experiment was conducted from February to June 2017 in Urutaí, state of Goiás, Brazil. Cultivar BRS Aleppo was used in the experiment. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement and three replications. The first factor was herbicides (fomesafen and lactofen) with the second factor being herbicide rate (50, 75, and 100% of referenced rate) plus an untreated check as a comparison. The applied rates of herbicides were 250 and 180 g ⋅ ha–1 of fomesafen and lactofen, respectively. The selectivity of herbicides was evaluated according to agronomic characteristics (plant population, height, dry matter, number of pods per plant and 100-grain weight) and yields. Both herbicides, regardless of dosage, were selective in chickpea cultivation, even exhibiting leaf necrosis symptoms with visible injuries below 20% with no effect on yield.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of the naphthalic anhydride safener on the protection of common bean cultivars BRS-Estilo (carioca) and BRS-Esplendor (black) from negative effects of herbicides. Two experiments were conducted, one for each cultivar in a complete randomized design with five replications, in a 6 × 3 factorial scheme, with six herbicide treatments: bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen, bentazon + imazamox, fomesafen, cloransulam, and control without application, and three naphthalic anhydride treatments: without application, foliar application, and application via seed treatment. Visible injuries at 7, 14 and 21 days after application, photosystem II electron transport rate, and plant dry weight were evaluated. The naphthalic anhydride applied via foliar, and seed treatment reduced significantly the visible injuries in relation to the control when using the herbicides bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen, bentazon + imazamox, and cloransulam. The photosystem II electron transport rate was protected by anhydride applied via foliar and seed treatment when using the herbicides bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen and bentazon + + imazamox. The application of naphthalic anhydride via seed treatment protected the BRS-Estilo and BRS-Esplendor common bean cultivars, with no reductions in the plant dry weight when using the herbicides fluazifop-P + fomesafen, and fomesafen. The use of naphthalic anhydride via seed treatment and foliar application protected BRS-Estilo and BRSEsplendor common bean cultivars, from the negative effects of fluazifop-P + fomesafen and fomesafen herbicides. Thus, this practice has potential to be used in common beans.
Pest mites of the family Tetranychidae are commonly reported in several legumes. However, reports of their occurrence in lima beans are insipient, especially in Brazil. The objective of this research was to record the occurrence of mites in lima bean plants and to describe their damage in this Fabaceae. Tetranychus neocaledonicus André and Mononychellus planki McGregor were found in lima bean plants, Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae or Leguminosae). The lima bean plants, when infested by these mites, initially exhibit small whitish spots in the leaflets, which with increasing population density rapidly evolve into chlorotic patches, followed by silvering, and may dry out and fall due to their overfeeding. The extent of the damage caused to lima bean plants and the adaptability of the mite to warm and dry conditions indicate that T. neocaledonicus has greater potential as a lima bean pest than M. planki in northeastern Brazil. This is the first record of these mites associated with P. lunatus.
Rice blast is one of the most destructive rice diseases known to cause considerable yield losses globally. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are closely associated with rice plants and improve plant growth and health. To determine how isolated bacteria trigger rice growth, an assessment of phosphate solubilization and auxin production mechanisms was carried out in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the interactions between PGPR and Rhizophagus irregularis were evaluated in wildtype and CYCLOPS mutant plants to provide a sustainable solution against blast disease and reduce the amount of yield loss. Importantly, Bacillus subtilis UTSP40 and Pseudomonas fluorescens UTSP50 exhibited a suppressive effect on AMF colonization which shows the probable existence of a functional competition between AMF and PGPR to dominate the rhizosphere. On the other hand, R. irregularis decreased the biocontrol activity of B. subtilis UTSP40 in wild type, although this reduction was not significant in mutant plants. Results showed that the same defense-related genes were induced in the roots of wild type colonized by B. subtilis UTSP40 and R. irregularis. Therefore, plant cell programs may be shared during root colonization by these two groups of beneficial microorganisms.
Root associated bacteria were isolated from Suaeda nudiflora and two isolates were selected for this study: rhizospheric Bacillus megaterium and endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These isolates were inoculated into maize variety Narmada Moti during its germination. TTC (2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) staining was used to confirm the association of the isolates with the maize root. The effects of these root associated bacteria were tested alone and in combinations for cell wall reinforcement and the induction of defense enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and β-1,3-glucanase in the presence of fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger in maize. The results indicated that the rhizospheric bacteria had a greater fight response to fungal infection than the endophhytic bacteria due to cell wall lignification as well as the rapid induction of higher concentrations of defense related enzymes.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), an important food crop in the world, is susceptible to many fungal pathogens including Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum causing Fusarium wilt and early blight diseases. Mycoparasitic fungi like Trichoderma encode chitinases, cell wall degrading enzymes, with high antifungal activity against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, a binary vector harboring endochitinase gene of ~1,000 bp was constructed and used to transform potato nodes through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Out of several primary transformants, two transgenic potato lines were verified for transgene insertion and integration by Southern blot. In a pot experiment for Fusarium resistance, the transgenic potato lines didn’t show any symptoms of disease, instead they remained healthy post infection. The transgenic potato lines exhibited 1.5 fold higher mRNA expression of endochitinase at 7 days as compared to 0 day post fungus inoculation. It was evident that the mRNA expression decreased over days of inoculation but was still higher than at 0 day and remained stable upto 30 days post inoculation. Similarly, for A. solani infection assay, the mRNA expression of the endochitinase gene was 3 fold higher 7 days post inoculation compared to expression at 0 day. Although the expression decreased by1.2 fold during subsequent days post infection, it remained stable for 30 days, suggesting that protection in transgenic potato plants against fungal pathogens was achieved through an increase in endochitinase transcript.
Polyphenol oxidase partial gene PG-PPO was cloned and characterized from Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) which showed 42% identity to a PPO sequence isolated from wheat at the region of Copper B with a score of 40 and e-value of 2.8. Multiple sequence alignment results revealed similarity to polyphenol oxidase (PPO) sequences from wheat, trifolium, lettuce, apricot, tobacco, tomato, pokeweed, apple, grape and poplar especially at the Copper B region of PPO. The 395 bp pearl millet PPO sequence was AT rich (53.3%) and contained the highly conserved amino acids of histidine-rich copper binding sites similar to PPO sequences from other crops. Results also indicated that PPO in pearl millet exists in multi copy. The role of the isolated PPO gene during pearl millet-downy mildew interaction was analyzed and the results showed significantly higher and rapid accumulation of PPO mRNAs in resistant pearl millet seedlings inoculated with Sclerospora graminicola in comparison to the susceptible control, demonstrating that the PPO plays a prominent role in pearl millet defense against pathogens, particularly downy mildew pathogen.
Globally more than 5.2 billion hectares of farming fields are damaged through erosion, salinity and soil deterioration. Many salt stress tolerant bacteria have plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics that can be used to overcome environmental stresses. Isolation and screening of salt-tolerant endophytes from Salicornia brachiata were achieved through surface sterilization of leaves followed by cultivation on 4% NaCl amended media. Performance of isolates towards indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, ammonia production, siderophore production and stress tolerance were determined. On the basis of the highest plant growth promoting activity, SbCT4 and SbCT7 isolates were tested for plant growth promotion with wheat and maize crops. In the present study, a total of 12 morphologically distinct salt-tolerant endophytic bacteria was cultured. Out of 12 isolates, 42% of salt-tolerant endophytes showed phosphate solubilization, 67% IAA production, 33% ACC-deaminase activity, 92% siderophore production, 41.6% ammonia production and 66% HCN production. A dendrogram, generated on the basis of stress tolerance, showed two clusters, each including five isolates. The bacterial isolates SbCT4 and SbCT7 showed the highest stress tolerance, and stood separately as an independent branch. Bacterial isolates increased wheat shoot and root dry weights by 60–82% and 50–100%, respectively. Similarly, improved results were obtained with maize shoot (27–150%) and root (80–126%) dry weights. For the first time from this plant the bacterial isolates were identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and Bacillus subtilis SbCT7 based on phenotypic features and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and B. subtilis SbCT7 significantly improved plant growth compared to non-inoculated trials.
Cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) are distributed globally and cause severe production losses of small grain cereals. To investigate the occurrence of cereal cyst nematodes in wheat-growing areas of Algeria, a survey was conducted and 27 cereal cyst nematode populations were collected. The populations were initially identified based on their morphological and morphometric characters, followed by molecular methods using speciesspecific primers, complemented by ITS-rDNA sequences. The morphological and morphometric features of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and cysts supported the presence of three Heterodera species: H. avenae, H. filipjevi and H. hordecalis. All morphological values of these distinct populations were very similar to those previously described for these species. Using species-specific primers for H. avenae and H. filipjevi, the specific bands of 109 bp and 646 bp confirmed the morphological identification of both species, respectively. In addition, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced to study the diversity of the 27 populations. These sequences were compared with those of Heterodera species available in the GenBank database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and re-confirmed the identity of the species. Nineteen sequences of ITS-rDNA were similar (99–100%) to the sequences of H. avenae published in the GenBank, six sequences were similar (99–100%) to H. hordecalis, and two were similar (98–99%) to H. filipjevi. The results of this study are of great value to breeding programs and extension services, where they will contribute to the design of control measures to keep damaging nematodes in check.
Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop which is attacked heavily by insect pests leading to reduction of yield and quality of the fruits. Field experiments were carried out to investigate the dissipation of methomyl (a common insecticide) used mainly on tomato fruits. LC-MS/MS coupled with the QuEChERS method were used for the determination of methomyl. The results showed that the recovery using matrix-matched standards ranged from 87.8 to 101.3%, with relative standard deviation of 2.5 to 7.5%. Kinetics equation, Log R = log R0 – 0.434 Kt, was used to calculate the rate of degradation in tomato, soil and water. Residue half-life calculated using kinetic rate ranged from 1.95 to 1.63 days in tomato and soil, respectively. From the results it was concluded that tomato fruits can be safely harvested for consumption after 15 days of application based on estimated preharvest interval (PHI). It is advisable to re-estimate the PHI regularly owing to data from the EU and Codex.
Genetically modified Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) leaves with typical symptoms of Alternaria early blight disease resembling that of tomato and potato were observed in the main cotton growing schemes in Sudan. Symptoms on leaves appeared as either brown 2leaf spot with gray centers or leaf blight with concentric rings. Pathogenicity tests using isolates with both symptoms showed that the isolated fungi were highly pathogenic to both G. hirsutum and G. barbadense cotton varieties. Alternaria alternata isolated from infected tomato and potato leaves with early blight symptoms was included for comparison. Microscopic examination showed that the mean length of conidia from cotton, tomato and potato isolates ranged from 26.25 to 45.45 μm, while the width ranged from 9.56 to 13.64 μm. The mean number of transverse septa among all isolates was 3.4 to 5.7 and the peak length ranged from 3.75 to 7.8 μm. Based on morphological characteristics the two isolates from cotton were identified as A. alternata. Genomic DNA was extracted directly from fungal cultures grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates using a Zymo Research Quick DNA kit. A species-specific primer using the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) PCR scoring indicated the presence of A. alternata using primer pair ITS4/ITS5. Amplifications of the internal transcribed spacer region of 600 bp revealed 100% identity of the isolated fungus from cotton with A. alternata from tomato and potato. These data oblige us to reconsider the presence of A. alternata in the four main cotton growing schemes in Sudan while these symptoms have always been described for tomato and potato early blight disease.
The association of phytoplasma was investigated in sand olive [Dodonaea viscosa ssp. Angustifolia (L. f.) J.G. West], cowpea [Vigna unguiclata (L.)] Wap and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants exhibiting witches broom, fasciation and little leaf symptoms, respectively. Sequence analysis of ~1.7 kb DNA fragments amplified by P1/P7 primer set confirmed the association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ within symptomatic alfalfa, while ‘Ca. Phytoplasma cynodontis’ was associated within cowpea and sand olive.
Two field experiments were established at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre at Nubaria, Beheira Governorate, Egypt to study the herbicidal potential of the leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% compared to two hand hoeing, unweeded treatments and the chemical herbicides Bentazon + Clethodium, Bentazon + Fluazifop-P-butyl and Butralin on pea plants and associated weeds. The results indicated that two hand hoeing achieved the maximum weed depression as expressed by the dry matter of total weeds. The dry matter of total weeds decreased by 95.08 to 94.77% as compared with unweeded treatment 50 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) followed by Butraline (93.93–94.65%), Bentazon + Clethodium (93.26–94.07%), Bentazon + Fluazifop--P-butyl (91.82–92.77%) and leaf extract of Eucalyptus at 25% (91.61–91.95%). Furthermore, the reduction in weed development was accompanied by enhanced pea growth and yield. The results revealed that two hand hoeing was the best treatment to increase plant height, shoot dry weight and SPAD value at 50 and 70 DAS. Also, two hand hoeing produced the maximum values of pod length and number of seeds/pod. The results also indicated that Bentazon + Clethodium treatment gave observable values [recorded 72.96% in pod yield (ton ⋅ fed.–1) over that of unweeded control] of number of pod/plant, weight of pod/plant, seed yield/fed and protein percentage. Also, the results revealed great increases in the growth of pea as well as yield due to treatment with E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25%. [recorded 64.8% in in pod yield (ton ⋅ fed.–1) over that of unweeded control]. So, the results indicated using Bentazon + Clethodium as well as E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25% to control weeds associated with pea plants. The authors suggested application of E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25% in controlling weeds associated with pea plants as a safe method that avoids environmental contamination.
Interest in growing roses in Poland is related to the production of cut flowers as ornamentals and of petals and hips for cosmetics or food products. However, recently there has been an increasing number of reports of pest damage on rose plantations. In the case of fruits the damage has been attributed to flies (Rhagoletis alternata) or moths (Cydia tenebrosana), while nematodes have been implicated for growth reduction even on plantations grown under soil-less conditions. Field trials and laboratory experiments to test the possibility of controlling R. alternata larvae or pupae with entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes resulted in a lack of parasitism. On the other hand, the use of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki or Cydia pomonella granulovirus effectively controlled C. tenebrosana. Meloidogyne incognita infestation of roses growing on rock wool substrate was drastically reduced by Arthrobothrys oligospora or abamectin. Factors such as the method of product application or pest susceptibility to the used microbial-based products accounted for the observed differences in efficacy.
The high pressure die casting technology allows the production of complex casts with good mechanical properties, with high production repeatability within narrow tolerance limits. However, the casts are somewhat porous, which may reduce their mechanical properties. There are several recommendations for reducing the porosity of casts, which are aimed at setting the technological parameters of the casting cycle. One of the primary and important ways to reduce the porosity and air entrapment in the melt is a suitable gating system design. Submitted contribution is devoted to assessing the influence of the runner branching geometry on the air entrapment within the cast volume during the filling phase of the casting cycle. Four variants of the gating system for a particular cast are compared with different design of main runner branching. The initial design is based on a real gating system where the secondary runner is connected to the main runner at an angle of 90 °. The modified designs are provided with a continuous transition of the main runner into the secondary ones, with the change in the branching runner radius r1 = 15 mm, r2 = 25 mm and r3 = 35 mm. The air entrapment in the melt is assessed within the cast volume behind the cores, which have been evaluated as a critical points with respect to further mechanical treatment. When designing the structural modification of geometry it was assumed that by branch changing using the radius value r3 = 35 mm, the melt flows fluently, and thus the value of the entrapped air in the volume of the cast will be the lowest. This assumption was disproved. The lowest values of entrapped air in the melt were found in the casts with runner transition designed with radius r1 = 15 mm. The conclusion of the contribution explains the causes of this phenomenon and from a designing point of view it presents proposal for measures to reduce the entrapment of the air in casts.
In this work, the influence of microwave drying parameters such as irradiation time and microwave power level on the properties of synthetic moulding sands is presented. Determination of compressive strength Rc s, shear strength Rt s and permeability Ps of synthetic moulding sands with the addition of two different bentonites, after drying process with variable microwave parameters were made. The research works were carried out using the microwave oven with regulated power range of the electromagnetic field. From the results obtained, the significant influence of both drying time and microwave power level on the selected properties of moulding sands was observed. In comparison to the conventional drying method, microwave drying allows to obtain higher compressive strength of the synthetic moulding sand. The influence of application microwave irradiation on permeability was not observed. Higher strength characteristics and shorter drying time are major advantages of application of the electromagnetic irradiation for drying of the synthetic moulding sand with regard to conventional drying method.
The paper focuses on investigation of properties of two most widely used self-set sand binder systems APNB and FNB across the Globe, for making molds and cores in foundries to produce castings of different sizes involving wide range of metals and alloys, ferrous and nonferrous. This includes study of compression strength values of samples made out of molding sand at different binder addition level using new, mechanically reclaimed (MR) and thermally reclaimed (TR) sand. Strength values studied include dry strength (at room temperature) at specified intervals simulating different stages of mold handling, namely stripping and pre heating, followed by degraded strength after application of thinner based zircon wash by brush, subsequent lighting of, then checking strength both in warm (degraded strength) & cold (recovered strength) conditions. Throughout the cycle of mold movement from stripping to knock out, strength requirements can be divided into two broad classifications, one from stripping to closing (dry strength) and another from pouring to knock out (hot & retained strength). Although the process for checking of dry strength are well documented, no method using simple equipments for checking hot & retained strength are documented in literature. Attempts have been made in this paper to use some simple methods to standardize process for checking high strength properties using ordinary laboratory equipments. Temperature of 450°C has been chosen by trial & error method to study high temperature properties to get consistent & amplified values. Volume of gases generated for both binders in laboratory at 850°C have also been measured. Nature of gases including harmful BTEX and PAH generated on pyrolysis of FNB and APNB bonded sands are already documented in a publication . This exercise has once again been repeated in same laboratory, AGH University, Poland with latest binder formulations in use in two foundries in India.
This paper focuses on the thermal behavior of the starch-based binder (Albertine F/1 by Hüttenes-Albertus) used in foundry technology of molding sand. The analysis of the course of decomposition of the starch material under controlled heating in the temperature range of 25-1100°C was conducted. Thermal analysis methods (TG-DTG-DSC), pyrolysis gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) were used. The application of various methods of thermal analysis and spectroscopic methods allows to verify the binder decomposition process in relation to conditions in the form in both inert and oxidizing atmosphere. It was confirmed that the binder decomposition is a complex multistage process. The identification of CO2 formation at set temperature range indicated the progressive process of decomposition. A qualitative evaluation of pyrolysis products was carried out and the course of structural changes occurring in the presence of oxygen was determined based on thermo-analytical investigations the temperature of the beginning of binder degradation in set condition was determined. It was noticed that, significant intensification of Albertine F/1 sample decomposition with formation of more degradation products took place at temperatures above 550ºC. Aromatic hydrocarbons were identified at 1100ºC.
The results presented in this article are part of the research on fatigue life of various foundry alloys carried out in recent years in the Lukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Precision Mechanics and AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering. The article discusses the test results obtained for the EN-GJS-600-3 cast iron in an original modified low-cycle fatigue test (MLCF), which seems to be a beneficial research tool allowing its users to evaluate the mechanical properties of materials with microstructural heterogeneities under both static and dynamic loads. For a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical behaviour with a focus on fatigue life of alloys, an original modified low cycle fatigue method (MLCF) adapted to the actually available test machine was used. The results of metallographic examinations carried out by light microscopy were also presented. From the analysis of the results of the conducted mechanical tests and structural examinations it follows that the MLCF method is fully applicable in a quick and economically justified assessment of the quality of ductile iron after normalizing treatment.
Submitted work deals with the analysis of reoxidation processes for aluminium alloys. Due to the aluminium high affinity to the oxygen, the oxidation and consequently reoxidation will occur. Paper focuses on the gating system design in order to suppress and minimize reoxidation processes. Design of the gating system is considered as one of the most important aspect, which can reduce the presence of reoxidation products - bifilms. The main reason for the reoxidation occurrence is turbulence during filling of the mold. By correctly designing the individual parts of gating system, it is possible to minimize turbulence and to ensure a smooth process of the mold filling. The aim of the work is an innovative approach in the construction of gating system by using unconventional elements, such as a naturally pressurized system or vortex elements. The aim is also to clarify the phenomenon during the gating system filling by visualization with the aid of ProCAST numerical simulation software. ProCAST can calculate different indicators which allow to better quantify the filling pattern.
In this paper is discussed the effect of the inoculant mischmetal addition on the microstructure of the magnesium alloy AZ91. The concentration of the inoculant was increased in the samples within the range from 0.1% up to 0.6%. The thermal process was performed with the use of Derivative and Thermal Analysis (DTA). A particular attention was paid to finding the optimal amount of the inoculant, which causes fragmentation of the microstructure. The concentration of each element was verified with use of a spark spectrometer. In addition, the microstructures of every samples were examined with the use of an optical microscope and also was performed an image analysis with a statistical analysis using the NIS–Elements program. The point of those analyses was to examine the differences in the grain diameters of phase αMg and eutectic αMg+γ(Mg17Al12) in the prepared samples as well as the average size of each type of grain by way of measuring their perimeters. This paper is the second part of the introduction into a bigger research on grain refinement of magnesium alloys, especially AZ91. Another purpose of this research is to achieve better microstructure fragmentation of magnesium alloys without the relevant changes of the chemical composition, which should improve the mechanical properties.
The article presents the results of research on the finishing of M63 Z4 brass by vibratory machining. Brass alloy was used for the research due to the common use of ammunition elements, cartridge case and good cold forming properties on the construction. Until now, the authors have not met with the results of research to determine the impact of abrasive pastes in container processing. It was found that the additive for container abrasive treatment of abrasive paste causes larger mass losses and faster surface smoothing effects. The treatment was carried out in two stages: in the first stage, the workpieces were deburred and then polished. Considerations were given to the impact of mass of workpieces, machining time and its type on mass loss and changes in the geometric structure of the surface. The surface roughness of machining samples was measured with the Talysurf CCI Lite optical profiler. The suggestions for future research may be to carry out tests using abrasive pastes with a larger granulation of abrasive grains, and to carry out tests for longer processing times and to determine the time after which the parameters of SGP change is unnoticeable.
Results of a research on influence of chromium, molybdenum and aluminium on structure and selected mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are presented. All raw castings showed austenitic matrix with relatively low hardness, making the material machinable. Additions of chromium and molybdenum resulted in higher inclination to hard spots. However, a small addition of aluminium slightly limited this tendency. Heat treatment consisting in soaking the castings at 500 °C for 4 h resulted in partial transformation of austenite to acicular, carbon-supersaturated ferrite, similar to the bainitic ferrite. A degree of this transformation depended not only on the nickel equivalent value (its lower value resulted in higher transformation degree), but also on concentrations of Cr and Mo (transformation degree increased with increasing total concentration of both elements). The castings with the highest hard spots degree showed the highest hardness, while hardness increase, caused by heat treatment, was the largest in the castings with the highest austenite transformation degree. Addition of Cr and Mo resulted in lower thermodynamic stability of austenite, so it appeared a favourable solution. For this reason, the castings containing the highest total amount of Cr and Mo with an addition of 0.4% Al (to reduce hard spots tendency) showed the highest tensile strength.
Investment casting combined with the additive manufacturing technology enables production of the thin-walled elements, that are geometrically complex, precise and can be easy commercialized. This paper presents design of aluminium alloy honeycombs, which are characterized with light structure, internal parallel oriented channels and suitable stiffness. Based on 3D printed pattern the mould was prepared from standard ceramic material subjected subsequently to appropriate heat treatment. Into created mould cavity with intricate and susceptible structure molten AC 44200 aluminium alloy was poured under low pressure. Properly designed gating system and selected process parameters enabled to limit the shrinkage voids, porosities and misruns. Compression examination performed in two directions showed different mechanisms of cell deformation. Characteristic plateau region of stress-strain curves allowed to determine absorbed energy per unit volume, which was 485 or 402 J/mm3 depending on load direction. Elaborated technology will be applied for the production of honeycomb based elements designated for energy absorption capability.