In this study, the effect of six commercial biocontrol strains, Bacillus pumilus INR7, B. megaterium P2, B. subtilis GB03, B. subtilis S, B. subtilis AS and B. subtilis BS and four indigenous strains Achromobacter sp. B124, Pseudomonas geniculate B19, Serratia marcescens B29 and B. simplex B21 and two plant defense inducers, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) were assessed on suppression of wheat take-all disease. Treatments were applied either as soil drench or sprayed on shoots. In the soil drench method, the highest disease suppression was achieved in treatment with strains INR7, GB03, B19 and AS along with two chemical inducers. Bacillus subtilis S, as the worst treatment, suppressed take-all severity up to 56%. Both chemical inducers and bacterial strains AS and P2 exhibited the highest effect on suppression of take-all disease in the shoot spray method. Bacillus subtilis S suppressed the disease severity up to 49% and was again the worst strain. The efficacy of strains GB03 and B19 decreased significantly in the shoot spray method compared to the soil drench application method. Our results showed that most treatments had the same effect on take-all disease when they were applied as soil drench or sprayed on aerial parts. This means that induction of plant defense was the main mechanism in suppressing take-all disease by the given rhizobacteria. It also revealed that plant growth was reduced when it was treated with chemical inducers. In contrast, rhizobacteria not only suppressed the disease, but also increased plant growth.
Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) has been one of the most common viruses on cereal crops in Poland in the last years. This single stranded DNA virus is transmitted by the leafhopper spec, Psammotettix alienus (Dahlb.) in a persistent manner. It induces yellowing and streaking of leaves, dwarfing or even death of infected plants. The presence of barley- and wheat-specific forms of WDV (WDV-B and WDV-W) and their vector were previously reported in the country, however the literature data did not include any information on the infectivity of the vector in Poland. A duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was developed and optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of both forms in the vector. Two sets of primers amplify 734 bp and 483 bp specific fragments for WDV-W and WDV-B, respectively. The results were verified by a sequencing method. The studies were carried out on insect samples collected in autumn from four different locations in Greater Poland. The results confirmed the presence of WDV-W in the tested samples. They also suggested the concomitant of both forms of the virus in the vector. Additional studies to determine virus-vector relationships should be undertaken.
This research was conducted to investigate the natural, quantitative composition of the most common Fusarium species directly in fields of northeastern Poland. The concentration of Fusarium spp. and grain quality traits (yield, 1,000 kernel weight, test weight, grain moisture, ergosterol content, protein content, gluten content and starch content) were compared in four wheat varieties (Mandaryna, Struna, Kandela and Arabella). Obtained results indicated a relation between grain moisture, test weight, ergosterol content, yield and fungi concentration. Protein, starch and gluten content was similar in all wheat varieties. Fusarium culmorum was the most common pathogen in Mandaryna and Struna and F. graminearum in Kandela and Arabella. Fusarium avenaceum and F. poae occurred in low amounts in all wheat varieties except Mandaryna. Fusarium oxysporum was found in comparable concentrations in Struna, Kandela and Arabella. Struna despite medium Fusarium spp. colonization possessed the most desirable grain quality compared to other varieties. We carried out real-time PCR detection of Fusarium spp. which is an efficient, cost effective and time saving method in evaluating the development of fungal diseases which are not visible in standard observations.
The effects of gamma irradiation on the vernalization requirements, growth and development of winter wheat grown in a rainout shelter were studied during two successive growing seasons. Dry grains of winter wheat cv. Kobra were irradiated with 300 Gy radiation from a cobalt 60 gamma irradiator. Treated and control grains were pregerminated and subjected to vernalization for 0, 42 or 54 days. Morphological parameters of the plants developing from irradiated seeds (M1 generation) and the plants grown from the seeds produced by the irradiated plants (M2 generation) were measured in order to track the studied effects over two generations. Irradiation of dry grains slowed the growth and development of the plants regardless of the temperature treatment. The measured yield structure elements appeared to be lower for irradiated plants, but no clear effect of radiation on vernalization requirements was noted
The species structure of plant parasitic nematode populations from the rhizosphere of winter wheat grown with crop rotation or in 48-year-old monoculture was analyzed and compared. Dominating species: Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius microdorus, Paratylenchus neglectus and Heterodera avenae, in monoculture plots, had higher populations than in crop rotation plots. Heterodera avenae eggs and larvae were infected by pathogenic fungi in 68% of the monoculture crops (vs. 65–66% of the cysts from crop rotation), 12–20% of Paratylenchus sp. specimens were colonized by bacteria, mainly by Bacillus penetrans. This study shows nematological changes occurring in long-term wheat breeding, thus providing additional information necessary to fight dangerous viral vectors of the examined cereal.
Eyespot is one of the most important fungal diseases of the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The presented study clearly demonstrated that the Pch1 gene was the main effective source for reducing the eyespot disease score in the analyzed winter wheat lines. Nevertheless, Pch1 was present only in 8−9% of the investigated lines. Using an isoenzymatic marker and molecular markers, the presence of the Pch1 gene and lack of the Pch2 gene was identified in six lines. Two lines, SMH 9409 and DL 358/13/4, were polymorphic in an isoenzymatic marker study. In the remaining three lines, C 3373/11-1, KBH 15.15 and KBP 1416, the Pch1 gene was identified only with the use of an isoenzymatic marker. Both genes Pch1 and Pch2, as well as the resistant variety Rendezvous, were found in three lines: DD 248/12, KBP 15.2 and STH 4431. In line DD 708/13, the presence of the Pch1 and Pch2 genes was identified, where the association between the Pch1 and the locus of the Xorw5 marker was broken. It was shown that the presence or absence of Pch1 and Pch2 genes did not significantly affect the grain yield (from the plot), although the yield was highest in the presence of both genes. A significant effect of the presence of the Pch1 gene on thousand kernel weight (TKW) was observed. Lines with the Pch1 gene showed significantly higher TKW values than lines without both genes or with the Pch2 gene only.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different zinc and iron concentrations in culture medium on growth and development of maize and wheat seedlings in terms of their inoculation with bacteria of Azospirillum genus. Maize and wheat in vitro cultures were inoculated, respectively, by strains of Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense strains. The experimental factor was the supplementation of the culture medium with zinc (25, 200 and 600 mg·kg-1 of the medium) and iron (25, 200 and 600 mg·kg-1 of the medium). Counts of bacteria from the Azospirillum genus were analysed and plant seedling growth and development as well as the content of chlorophyll in plant leaf blades were monitored. Zinc turned out to reduce strongly numbers of bacteria of the Azospirillum genus. Azospirillum brasilense turned out to be particularly sensitive to elevated levels of this chemical element in the environment. The negative influence of increased quantities of zinc on cereal seedlings became apparent only after the application of the highest concentrations of this metal in the medium (600 mg·kg-1), while quantities which did not exceed 200 mg·kg-1 exerted a stimulation effect on the mass of maize and wheat seedlings. Iron added to the culture medium in quantities which did not exceed 200 mg·kg-1 did not reduce numbers of bacteria of the Azospirillum genus; on the contrary, they stimulated their growth. However, at higher concentrations, this metal turned out to exert a strong negative impact on the chlorophyll content in leaf blades as well as on the mass of maize and wheat seedlings. The inoculation with bacteria of the Azospirillum genus exerted a positive influence on the mass increase of maize and wheat seedlings and increased chlorophyll concentrations in leaf blades. At the same time, it contributed significantly to limiting or even levelling out the toxic impact of zinc and iron during the initial phases of plant growth and development.
Seed-borne diseases of wheat such as Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungal disease caused by several species of Fusarium, results in reduced yield and seed quality. The aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species, the effect of Fusarium-infected seeds on germination and vigor indices and to determine the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds, as well as to investigate the pathogenicity and variability of aggressiveness of the isolates obtained from pre-basic seeds wheat fields in Iran. According to morphological and molecular characters, the species F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae were identified. Among the isolates, F. graminearum was the predominant species with the highest frequency and relative density of 92.9% and 70.9%, respectively. We observed that germination and vigor indices were decreased due to increased Fusarium-infected seeds. Results indicated significant differences among cultivars and seed-borne Fusarium levels. While a higher infection level of Fusarium spp. most commonly occurred in the seed coat, only F. graminearum was observed in embryos. Our study about pathogenicity showed that 77.3% of the Fusarium spp. isolates were not pathogenic and 22.7% isolates of Fusarium spp. were pathogenic or weakly pathogenic. Our results indicated that variability in aggressiveness among isolates of a species and positive correlation may be determined by pathogenicity tests. This is the first time the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds has been identified. It is also the first time that Fusarium-infected seeds in pre-basic seeds wheat fields of Iran have been evaluated.
In the present study, the enrichment and isolation of textile effluent decolorizing bacteria were carried out in wheat bran (WB) medium. The isolated bacterium Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 was then tested for decolorization of textile effluent in consortium with a dyestuff degrading fungus Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM 1146. Decolorization study suggests that A. ochraceus NCIM 1146 and P. rettgeri strain HSL1 alone re moves only 6 and 32% of textile effluent American Dye Manufacturing Institute respectively in 30 h at 30 ±0.2°C of microaerophilic incubation, while the fungal-bacterial consortium does 92% ADMI removal within the same time period. The fungal-bacterial consortium exhibited enhanced decolorization rate due to the induction in activities of catalytic enzymes laccase (196%), lignin peroxidase (77%), azoreductase (80%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (84%). The HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of textile effluent into various metabolites. Detoxification studies of textile effluent before and after treatment with fungal-bacterial consortium revealed reduced toxicity of degradation metabolites. The efficient degradation and detoxification by fungal-bacterial consortium pre-grown in agricultural based medium thus suggest a promising approach in designing low-cost treatment technologies for textile effluent.
Concerns about food quality and environmental protection have led to the search for effective and safe insect control measures. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of some insecticides (malathion, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin) and clove oil, alone and in combinations, to protect wheat grain against Rhyzopertha dominica. Adult mortality, progeny emergence and weight loss of treated grain were examined. The results revealed that the tested insecticides and clove oil alone showed high efficiency to R. dominica with respect to mortality, progeny of the adults and weight loss of wheat grain. The mixing of lambda-cyhalothrin and clove oil with the most effective insecticide (alphacypermethrin) enhanced its efficacy to R. dominica. It was more efficient against R. dominica than when used alone with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. However, mixing alpha-cypermethrin with malathion reduced the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin against R. dominica with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. Combinations of alpha-cypermethrin and clove oil reduced wheat grain loss more than using them alone. Mixing lambda-cyhalothrin and clove oil with low concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin improved its efficacy against R. dominica and therefore may reduce environmental pollution, lower risks to human health, and delay insect resistance development.