Ecology and life characteristics of overwintering larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) (Lep.: Crambidea) are partly unexplored due to their hidden lifestyle. In plant protection research the best way to study these phenomena is to apply less used, non-destructive, in vivo methods. The objective of our CT survey was to examine the factors influencing the location of the overwintering O. nubilalis larvae in maize stalks. The findings obtained by CT-analysis can be used for monitoring the presence and location of O. nubilalis larvae in the stalk, as well as both their displacement and movement. Our results showed that both the location and the distance from the brace root of O. nubilalis larvae were significantly influenced by the sampling time, the number of larvae per plant, the stalk diameter and finally the prevailing temperature. The location of the larvae situated nearest to the brace roots (first larvae) was significantly lower in stalks containing several larvae, than those where only a single larva was found in the stalk. The thickness of stalks was related to the simultaneous presence of more larvae, and to the ground level position of the first larvae. These overwintering larvae were located closer to the brace root (and to the soil), possibly because of having moved downwards inside the stalk, where the temperature is slightly milder than in the upper part of the stalk.
Trade is one of the key factors determining sustainable city development and its surroundings. City development is a result of provision of goods and services to city inhabitants, and residents of its surrounding areas. Retail trade in Poland belongs to economy sectors in which the processes of market changes were started the earliest. Discount stores that apply the strategy of low prices in the in the process of market conquering are currently one of the most dynamically developing selling formats. These shopping facilities are located in many Polish cities, including small towns and rural areas. The aim of the article is to show the scale of investments in new discount shops in small towns and rural areas in Poland in 2012–2015. Research focused at devoted to this field is important from the point of view of choosing the location of new investments related to discount chains and of the small towns and rural areas development strategies. Identification of consequences of discount chains operations in chosen rural areas and small towns can impact the verification of the policy adopted by local authorities in relation to spatial planning and forming the functional structure of the space. It will result in more conscious (rational) decisions in terms of localizing new discounts, which will reduce the number of local conflicts related to location of such facilities.
This paper presents the comparison of filtering methods – median filtration, moving average Kalman filtration and filtration based on a distance difference to determine the most accurate arm length for circular motion, as a model of wind turbine propellers movement. The experiments have been performed with the UWB technology system containing four anchors and a tag attached to 90cm arm that was rotated with speed up to 15.5 rad/s (as a linear speed of 50km/h). The trilateration concept based on the signal latency has been described in order to determinate the position of an object on circular trajectory. The main objective is the circle plane rotation (parallel and perpendicular) with respect to the anchors plane reference system. All research tasks have been performed for various cases of motion schemes in order to get the filtration method for object in motion under best accuracy goal. Filtration methods have been applied on one of two stages of the positioning algorithm: (1) on raw data got from the single anchor-tag (before trilateration); (2) on the position obtained from four anchors and tag (after trilateration). It has been proven that the appropriate filtering allows for higher location accuracy. Moreover, location capabilities with the use of UWB technology – shows prospective use of positioning of objects without access to other positioning forms (ex. GPS) in many aspects of life such as currently developing renewable, green energy sources like wind turbines where the circular motion plays an important role, and precise positioning of propellers is a key element in monitoring the work of the whole wind turbine.
Seed-borne diseases of wheat such as Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungal disease caused by several species of Fusarium, results in reduced yield and seed quality. The aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species, the effect of Fusarium-infected seeds on germination and vigor indices and to determine the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds, as well as to investigate the pathogenicity and variability of aggressiveness of the isolates obtained from pre-basic seeds wheat fields in Iran. According to morphological and molecular characters, the species F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae were identified. Among the isolates, F. graminearum was the predominant species with the highest frequency and relative density of 92.9% and 70.9%, respectively. We observed that germination and vigor indices were decreased due to increased Fusarium-infected seeds. Results indicated significant differences among cultivars and seed-borne Fusarium levels. While a higher infection level of Fusarium spp. most commonly occurred in the seed coat, only F. graminearum was observed in embryos. Our study about pathogenicity showed that 77.3% of the Fusarium spp. isolates were not pathogenic and 22.7% isolates of Fusarium spp. were pathogenic or weakly pathogenic. Our results indicated that variability in aggressiveness among isolates of a species and positive correlation may be determined by pathogenicity tests. This is the first time the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds has been identified. It is also the first time that Fusarium-infected seeds in pre-basic seeds wheat fields of Iran have been evaluated.
The Act of July 5, 2018 on Facilitating of Preparation and Implementation of Housing and Accompanying Investments allows such investments irrespective of the existence of a local development plan or determination of use of land in the local development plan. In other words, the abovementioned investments may be implemented on land with a completely different designation according to the local development plan, as for example the mining of minerals. The location of the investment is decided by a resolution of the municipal council. If the planned location is to be situated within the boundaries of documented mineral deposits and the so-called „mining areas”, it needs, among others, to be agreed with the appropriate geological administration authority. Not taking a position within 21 days is considered as a consent. With reference to the deposits not covered by mining licenses, the Act does not indicate the premises that should be taken into consideration while providing such consent. There is a concern that this may lead to the development of the land in a way that will cause the subsequent extraction of the mineral impossible.
Designed by the architect Louis I. Kahn, the Phillips Exeter Academy Library is renowned mostly for the quality of its inner spaces. Particularly, the image of the building's central void with its large circular openings giving an insight onto the bookshelves has almost become an archetype of the library. Following the building's design process, however, we will learn how many tangible factors participated in the actual shaping of its architecture. The uniqueness of this project relies not only on embodying the idea of the library as institution, but also on the compromises the architect took as well as on the building's adjustment to its environmental setting.
This article presents combined approach to analog electronic circuits testing by means of evolutionary methods (genetic algorithms) and using some aspects of information theory utilisation and wavelet transformation. Purpose is to find optimal excitation signal, which maximises probability of fault detection and location. This paper focuses on most difficult case where very few (usually only input and output) nodes of integrated circuit under test are available.
The main points of the UPoN-2018 talk and some valuable comments from the Audience are briefly summarized. The talk surveyed the major issues with the notion of zero-point thermal noise in resistors and its visibility; moreover it gave some new arguments. The new arguments support the old view of Kleen that the known measurement data “showing” zero-point Johnson noise are instrumental artifacts caused by the energy-time uncertainty principle. We pointed out that, during the spectral analysis of blackbody radiation, another uncertainty principle is relevant, that is, the location-momentum uncertainty principle that causes only the widening of spectral lines instead of the zero-point noise artifact. This is the reason why the Planck formula is correctly confirmed by the blackbody radiation experiments. Finally a conjecture about the zero-point noise spectrum of wide-band amplifiers is shown, but that is yet to be tested experimentally.