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Abstract

Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magnus) Lams-Scrib is one of the most devastating seed-borne diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In the present study, we evaluated the antifungal activity of Bunium persicum essential oil (EO) and its main constituents on mycelial growth, sporulation and spore germination inhibition of C. lindemuthianum. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of EO and its main constituents on decreasing the activity of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) produced by C. lindemuthianum, which are associated with disease progress. Also, the effects of seed treatment and foliar application of EO and its main constituent, cuminaldehyde, on anthracnose disease severity was investigated. The essential oil of B. persicum, was obtained by using a clevenger apparatus and its major constituents were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO was characterized by the presence of major compounds such as cuminaldehyde (37.7%), γ-terpinene (17.1%) and β-pinene (15.4%), which indicated antifungal effects against C. lindemuthianum. This pathogen did not grow in the presence of EO, cuminaldehyde and γ-terpinene, β-pinene at 1,500; 1,010 and 1,835 ppm concentrations, respectively. Also, sporulation and spore germination of C. lindemuthianum was completely inhibited by EO and cuminaldehyde. Synergistic effects of the main constituents showed that combing γ-terpinene with cuminaldehyde induced a synergistic activity against C. lindemuthianum and in combination with β-pinene caused an additive effect. Activities of pectinase, cellulase and xylanase, as main CWDEs, were decreased by EO and its main constituents at low concentration without affecting mycelial growth. Seed treatment and foliar application of peppermint EO and/or cuminaldehyde significantly reduced the development of bean anthracnose. We introduced B. persicum EO and constituents, cuminaldehyde and γ-terpinene, as possible control agents for bean anthracnose.
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Abstract

Seed-borne diseases of wheat such as Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungal disease caused by several species of Fusarium, results in reduced yield and seed quality. The aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species, the effect of Fusarium-infected seeds on germination and vigor indices and to determine the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds, as well as to investigate the pathogenicity and variability of aggressiveness of the isolates obtained from pre-basic seeds wheat fields in Iran. According to morphological and molecular characters, the species F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae were identified. Among the isolates, F. graminearum was the predominant species with the highest frequency and relative density of 92.9% and 70.9%, respectively. We observed that germination and vigor indices were decreased due to increased Fusarium-infected seeds. Results indicated significant differences among cultivars and seed-borne Fusarium levels. While a higher infection level of Fusarium spp. most commonly occurred in the seed coat, only F. graminearum was observed in embryos. Our study about pathogenicity showed that 77.3% of the Fusarium spp. isolates were not pathogenic and 22.7% isolates of Fusarium spp. were pathogenic or weakly pathogenic. Our results indicated that variability in aggressiveness among isolates of a species and positive correlation may be determined by pathogenicity tests. This is the first time the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds has been identified. It is also the first time that Fusarium-infected seeds in pre-basic seeds wheat fields of Iran have been evaluated.
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