The coal exploitation in the Upper Silesia region (along the Vistula River) triggers the strata seismic activity, characterized by very high energy, which can create mining damage of the surface objects, without any noticeable damages in the underground mining structures. It is assumed that the appearance of the high energy seismic events is the result of faults’ activation in the vicinity of the mining excavation. This paper presents the analysis of a case study of one coal mine, where during exploitation of the longwall panel no. 729, the high energy seismic events occurred in the faulty neighborhood. The authors had analyzed the cause of the presented seismic events, described the methods of energy decreasing and applied methods of prevention in the selected mining region. The analysis concluded that the cause of the high energy seismic events, during the exploitation of the longwall panel no. 729 was the rapid displacements on the fault surface. The fault’s movements arose in the overburden, about 250 m above the excavated longwall panel, and they were strictly connected to the cracking of the thick sandstone layer.
The currently applicable legal provisions and also the economic concepts emphasize the importance of circular economy. In this aspect, it is very important to reduce the waste production respectively planning and running a business. Technical research is the key to finding a new applications for waste, in particular disposed on landfilling. Mining and energy industries belong to the biggest producers of waste in Poland. The total share of these two branches in waste production is up to 70% (mining and quarrying 53%; electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supplay 17%). In environment, economy and social aspect, it is very important to develop this waste. The paper presents research on the physico-mechanical properties of the aggregates based on colliery shale supplemented by fly ash (20% - 40% supplement of fly ash). The following tests should be mentioned among performed: particle size distribution, the sand equivalent test, freeze resistance and direct shear tests. Also the chemical properties found in the literature was invoked. The research shows good physico-mechanical properties of the mixes, such as cohesion (44.62 kPa - 68.57 kPa) or internal firiction angle (34.74° - 40.52°). Though low resistance to weathering and a large susceptibility to frost heave (the mass loss after the freezing cycles is 76%) may limit its applicatin in road engineering. The sand equivalent tests were made only for aggregates. Tested materials shows usefulness for earthen structures. However, the research should be supplemented by chemical tests and also observations of the material properties changes as the effect of time. The research on the leachability of chemical pollutants, which will determine the acceptable share of ash in the mix, could be especially significant. The fact that fly ash contains a lot of sulphates and chlorides, which leach into the environment may pose a threat to living organisms.
The national power industry is based primarily on its own energy mineral resources such as hard and brown coal. Approximately 80% of electrical energy production from these minerals gives us complete energy independence and the cost of its production from coal is the lowest in comparison to other sources. Poland has, for many decades had vast resources of these minerals, the experience of their extraction and processing, the scientific-design facilities and technical factories manufacturing machines and equipment for own needs, as well as for export. Nowadays coal is and should be an important source of electrical energy and heat for the next 25–50 years, because it is one of the most reliable and price acceptable energy sources. This policy may be disturbed over the coming decades due to the depletion of active resources of hard and brown coal. The conditions for new mines development as well as for all coal mining sector development in Poland are very complicated in terms of legislation, environment, economy and image. The authors propose a set of strategic changes in the formal conditions for acquiring mining licenses. The article gives a signal to institutions responsible for national security that without proposed changes implementation in the legal and formal process it, will probably not be possible to build next brown coal, hard coal, zinc and lead ore or other minerals new mines.
This paper presents a complex study of anhydrite interbeds influence on the cavern stability in the Mechelinki salt deposit. The impact of interbeds on the cavern shape and the stress concentrations were also considered. The stability analysis was based on the 3D numerical modelling. Numerical simulations were performed with use of the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and the FLAC3D v. 6.00 software. The numerical model in a cuboidal shape and the following dimensions: length 1400, width 1400, height 1400 m, comprised the part of the Mechelinki salt deposit. Three (K-6, K-8, K-9) caverns were projected inside this model. The mesh of the numerical model contained about 15 million tetrahedral elements. The occurrence of anhydrite interbeds within the rock salt beds had contributed to the reduction in a diameter and irregular shape of the analysed caverns. The results of the 3D numerical modelling had indicated that the contact area between the rock salt beds and the anhydrite interbeds is likely to the occurrence of displacements. Irregularities in a shape of the analysed caverns are prone to the stress concentration. However, the stability of the analysed caverns are not expected to be affected in the assumed operation conditions and time period (9.5 years).